ANTI NEOPLASTIC DRUGS!!!!!!



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Cancer begins with a cell that is different than all other cells. As the cell divides it passes its genetic differences on creating a tumor.




Cancer Terms:
Anaplasia: Loss of cellular differentiation and organization

Autonomy: loss of regulation of homeostatic properties such as cell growth and control

Metastasis: Cells travel from place of origin and begin to form new tumors in other areas of the body´╗┐
Angiogenesis: cancer cells redirect blood vessels to supply themselves with O2 and nutrients
Causes of Cancer:
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Viral Infection
  • Constant Irritation
  • Stress
Types of Cancer

  • Solid Tumors
    • Carcinoma
    • Sarcoma


  • Hematological Malignancies
    • Leukemia and Lymphoma


Cancer Treatment:
  1. Surgery
  2. Radiation Therapy
  3. Chemotherapy (Antineoplastic Agents)

Classes of Antineoplastic Drugs:
  • Alkylating Agents
  • Antimetabolites
  • Antineoplastic Antibodies
  • Mitotic Inhibitors
  • Hormones and hormone modulatiors
  • Cancer cell-specific agents



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Alkylating Agents
  • Chorambucil (Leukeran)
  • React chemically with RNA, DNA, and other cellular proteins, killing them.
  • Non cell specific, can effect cells even in resting phase
  • Most useful in slow growing cancers such as lymphomas, leukemias, ovarian, testicular, breast, and pancreatic cancers

Side Effects
  • Hematological- bone marrow suppression
  • GI- Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
  • Alopecia or hair loss
  • Skin breakdown
  • CNS- toxicity (seizures)
  • Renal toxicity
  • Hepatotoxicity

Antimetabolites
  • Methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall)
  • Inhibit DNA production in cells that depend on metabolites to produce their DNA
  • Work in the S phase, interfere with ability of cell to divide
  • Used for various leukemias, some GI and basal cell cancers, Hydatidiform mole, Rheumatoid arthritis, severe psoriasis
  • Part of combination therapy
  • NEOPLASTIC CELLS DEVELOP RESISTANCE TO THESE AGENTS!!!!

Side Effects
  • Hematological- bone marrow suppression
  • GI- nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
  • Alopecia or hair loss
  • Skin breakdown
  • CNS- toxicity (seizures)
  • Renal toxicity
  • Hepatotoxicity

Antineoplastic Antibiotics
  • Doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
  • Interfere with DNA synthesis by inserting itself between the DNA pairs in the DNA chain, causes mutant DNA molecule, causing cell death
  • Toxic to rapidly dividing cells
  • Cell specific affecting the S phase
  • Used for numerous leukemias and cancers

Side Effects

  • Hematological- bone marrow suppression
  • GI- nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
  • Alopecia or hair loss
  • Skin breakdown
  • CNS- toxicity (seizures)
  • Renal toxicity
  • Hepatotoxicity

Mitotic Inhibitors

  • Vincristine (Oncovin, Vincasar)Kills cells as the process of mitosis begins
    • Cell cycle specific M Phase
    • Inhibits DNA synthesis
    • Interferes with ability of cells to divide
    • used for acute Leukemia, hodgkin disease, non hodgkin lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma

  • Side Effectsexternal image Leukemia_0.jpg
    • Hematological Bone marrow suppression
    • GI nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • Alopecia or hair loss
    • Skin breakdown
    • CNS toxicity (seizures)
    • Renal toxicity
    • Heopatotoxicity

Hormone and Hormone Modulators

  • Tamoxifien
    • Competes with estrogen for binding sites in target tissues, such as breast
    • Treatment of metastatic breast cancer, reduction of the incidence of breast cancer in women with high risk.external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQOd-5Jn3DQBth3sytH1YtzValfHYQh4W2KCiVluOsotS5xkWmq5w&t=1

  • Side Effects
    • Menopausal effects: Hot flashes, rash, nausea, vomiting, vaginal bleeding, menstrual irregularities, edema, pain stroke,pulmonary emboli
    • Hypercalcemia: calcium pulled out of the bones without estrogen activity to promote calcium deposition
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Cancer Cell Specific Agents


  • Imatinib (Gleevec)
    • Block of the enzymes inhibits tumor cell growth and division.
    • Very specific enzymes, very specific tumors
    • Does not effect healthy cells

  • Side Effects
    • Fewer toxic side effects because of specificity
    • Adverse: muscle cramps, heart failure, fluid retention, skin rash
    • GI, SKIN, HAIR LOSS,BONE MARROW SUPPRESSION DO NOT OCCURE WITH THESE DRUGS
WE ALSO COST LOTS OF MONEY!!!!


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Answers to crossword puzzle:

1. anaplasia
2. autonomy
3. vincristine
4. chorambucil
5. radiation
6. methotrexate
7. doxorubicin
8. metastasis
9. imatinib
10. angiogenesis
11. tamoxifen
12. alopecia



References:
Pictures from Google
Petges, Nancy, RN MSN. Pharmacology: Antineoplastic Agents, 2011.