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What is an antibiotic?
  • A medication that kills bacteria or slows their growth
  • Are classified based on their based on their chemical structure
  • Some common classes are sulfonamides, penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams, macrolides & tetracyclines
  • Act against types & species of different microorganisms that are infectious

Bacterial Infection?

  • Microorganisms invade & multiply within a person and these signs & symptoms are commonly seen:


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  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Pus
  • Fever
  • Chills & Sweats
  • Redness
  • Pain
  • Swelling
  • Increased WBC’s


How do I know which antibiotic to take?
  • When a patient presents these signs and symptoms, they should seek medical attention
  • To begin the treatment of a bacterial infection, a broad spectrum antibiotic may be given
  • A culture which will identify the specific microorganism as either gram-positive or gram-negative should be ordered
  • Based on the results, an appropriate antibiotic may be prescribed to treat the unique microorganism that caused the infection

Some classes of Antibacterial Drugs (with details) are as follows:


Sulfonamides (Sulfa Drugs):
Drug Name
Indications
Bacteria
Side Effects
Miscellaneous
Sulfadiazine,
Sulfamethoxazole,
Spetra, Bactrim,
Pediazole
Urinary tract infection,
nocaridosis (AIDS), pneumonia (PCP), Upper resp. tract infections
Enterobacter species, Escherichia coli, Staph. aureus, Pneumoncystis carinii
Photosensitivity, rash, convulsions, headache, hemolytic anemia & aplastic anemia
Avoid sunlight, NO TANNING!


Penicillins:
Drug Name
Indications
Bacteria
Side Effects
Miscellaneous
Ampicillin,
Amoxicillin, Augmentin, Timentin, Zozysn
Presence of gram-positive bacteria
Staphylococcus species, Enterococcus, Streptococcus
Alergic reactions with hives, pruritus, welts, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain
Many interactions with other drugs such as: NSAIDS, oral contraceptives, Warfin

Cephalosporins:
Drug Name
Indications
Gram +/-
Side Effects
Miscellaneous
4 Generations
Examples from each:
I. Keflex
II. Ceftin
III. Rocephin
IV. Maxipime
I. Surgical prophylaxis, upper resp. infections, ear infections
II. Abdominal/ colorectal prophylaxis surgeries
III. Bacteria meningitis
IV. Complicated urinary tract infections, uncomplicated skin infections
I. Positive
II. Positive
III. Negative
IV. Positive
(General)
Mild diarrhea,
abdominal cramps, rash, pruritis, redness, edema
Cross sensitivity with penicillins if allergy exists


Carbapenems:
Drug Name
Indications
Bacteria
Side Effects
Miscellaneous
Primaxin
Complicated body cavity
and connective
tissue infections,
also used in treatment
in bone, joint, skin and soft tissue infections
Broad spectrum antibacterial action
May cause drug induced seizure activity
Treats a hard to treat infection


Monobactams:
Drug Name
Indications
Bacteria
Side Effects
Miscellaneous
Azactam
Moderately severe systemic infections and urinary tract infections
E. coli, Klebsilla species, Pseudomonas species
GI complections
In elderly women, restores estrogen against E. coli.



Macrolides (“mycins”):
Drug Name
Indications
Bacteria
Side Effects
Miscellaneous
E-mecin, E.E.S., Zithromax
Strep infections, upper resp. infections, Syphilis, Lyme disease, Gonorrhea
Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae,
Clamydia, Mycoplasma
Anorexia, vomiting, nausea, diahrrea, jaundice, flatulence, hepatoxicity
Prevents protein synthesis within bacterial cells




Tetracyclines:
Drug Name
Indications
Bacteria
Side Effects
Miscellaneous
Doryx, Vibramycin, Demeclocycline
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, plural and pericardial effusions and
Lyme disease
Mycoplasma, Rickettsia, Chlaymdia, Strepomyces
Tooth discoloration in pregnant women and children under 8 as well as in utero and nursing infants.
Alteration in intestinal flora, causing GI upset
Should not be taken with dairy products b/c the drug binds to calcium from the dairy, making the drug ineffective

Reference:

Lilley, L., Harrington, S., & Snyder, J. (2011). Pharmacology and the nursing process. (6th ed.).
St. Louis: Mosby





Related You-Tube Videos:

Antibiotic Use:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lfxLgYvKO60



Preview: Antibiotics & Food Supply:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lE3R2ey5hYI





Related Article and Video by CDC:

Get Smart with Antibotics:
http://www.cdc.gov/Features/GetSmart/

Snort. Sniffle. Sneeze. No Antibiotics Please!

http://www.cdc.gov/CDCTV/SnortSniffleSneeze/


Reference:

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work.
Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/Features/GetSmart/










Pop Quiz!

1. What are the classifications of antibotics?

2. What is a broad-spectrum antibiotic?

3. For the following, give an answer in the form of a question (think Jeopardy):
A. Also known as "killing" bacteria.
B. An antibiotic that inhibits the growth of the bacteria.

4. Why is it important to take a culture when prescribing antibiotics?

5. Name the signs and symptoms of an infection.

Scroll down to receive answers.















Answers:

1. Sulfonamides,penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems,
monobactams, macrolides & tetracyclines

2. An antibiotic that is used to treat gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

Example: Please see pg. 589 & read under 'Indications'

3.
A. What are bactericidal antibiotics?
B. What are bacteriostatic antibiotics?

4. A culture should always been taken in order to prevent the bacteria from
becoming resistant to the antibiotic and to ensure that the infection is being
treated with the proper antibiotic.

5. Fatigue, weight loss, pus, fever, chills, sweats, redness, pain, swelling and increased white blood cells.




We hope you learned a lot about Antibiotics!