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Herbals & Dietary Suppliments
Antibiotics - Part I - Chapter 38
Antibiotics - Part II - Chapter 39
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Antibiotics - Part I - Chapter 38
What is an antibiotic?
A medication that kills bacteria or slows their growth
Are classified based on their based on their chemical structure
Some common classes are sulfonamides, penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams, macrolides & tetracyclines
Act against types & species of different microorganisms that are infectious
Microorganisms invade & multiply within a person and these signs & symptoms are commonly seen:
Chills & Sweats
How do I know which antibiotic to take?
When a patient presents these signs and symptoms, they should seek medical attention
To begin the treatment of a bacterial infection, a broad spectrum antibiotic may be given
A culture which will identify the specific microorganism as either gram-positive or gram-negative should be ordered
Based on the results, an appropriate antibiotic may be prescribed to treat the unique microorganism that caused the infection
Some classes of Antibacterial Drugs (with details) are as follows:
Sulfonamides (Sulfa Drugs):
Urinary tract infection,
nocaridosis (AIDS), pneumonia (PCP), Upper resp. tract infections
Enterobacter species, Escherichia coli, Staph. aureus, Pneumoncystis carinii
Photosensitivity, rash, convulsions, headache, hemolytic anemia & aplastic anemia
Avoid sunlight, NO TANNING!
Amoxicillin, Augmentin, Timentin, Zozysn
Presence of gram-positive bacteria
Staphylococcus species, Enterococcus, Streptococcus
Alergic reactions with hives, pruritus, welts, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain
Many interactions with other drugs such as: NSAIDS, oral contraceptives, Warfin
Examples from each:
I. Surgical prophylaxis, upper resp. infections, ear infections
II. Abdominal/ colorectal prophylaxis surgeries
III. Bacteria meningitis
IV. Complicated urinary tract infections, uncomplicated skin infections
abdominal cramps, rash, pruritis, redness, edema
Cross sensitivity with penicillins if allergy exists
Complicated body cavity
also used in treatment
in bone, joint, skin and soft tissue infections
Broad spectrum antibacterial action
May cause drug induced seizure activity
Treats a hard to treat infection
Moderately severe systemic infections and urinary tract infections
E. coli, Klebsilla species, Pseudomonas species
In elderly women, restores estrogen against E. coli.
E-mecin, E.E.S., Zithromax
Strep infections, upper resp. infections, Syphilis, Lyme disease, Gonorrhea
Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae,
Anorexia, vomiting, nausea, diahrrea, jaundice, flatulence, hepatoxicity
Prevents protein synthesis within bacterial cells
Doryx, Vibramycin, Demeclocycline
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, plural and pericardial effusions and
Mycoplasma, Rickettsia, Chlaymdia, Strepomyces
Tooth discoloration in pregnant women and children under 8 as well as in utero and nursing infants.
Alteration in intestinal flora, causing GI upset
Should not be taken with dairy products b/c the drug binds to calcium from the dairy, making the drug ineffective
Lilley, L., Harrington, S., & Snyder, J. (2011). Pharmacology and the nursing process. (6th ed.).
St. Louis: Mosby
Related You-Tube Videos:
Preview: Antibiotics & Food Supply:
Related Article and Video by CDC:
Get Smart with Antibotics:
Snort. Sniffle. Sneeze. No Antibiotics Please!
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work.
1. What are the classifications of antibotics?
2. What is a broad-spectrum
3. For the following, give an answer in the form of a question (think Jeopardy):
A. Also known as "killing" bacteria.
B. An antibiotic that inhibits the growth of the bacteria.
4. Why is it important to take a culture when prescribing antibiotics?
5. Name the signs and symptoms of an infection.
Scroll down to receive answers.
1. Sulfonamides,penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems,
monobactams, macrolides & tetracyclines
that is used to treat gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.
Please see pg. 589 & read under 'Indications'
A. What are bactericidal
B. What are bacteriostatic
4. A culture should always been taken in order to prevent the bacteria from
becoming resistant to the antibiotic and to ensure that the infection is being
treated with the proper antibiotic.
5. Fatigue, weight loss, pus, fever, chills, sweats, redness, pain, swelling and increased white blood cells.
We hope you learned a lot about Antibiotics!
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